Sunday, January 27, 2013

Pulmonary Abnormalities in Dogs with Leptospirosis

Pulmonary Abnormalities in Dogs with Leptospirosis

  1. B. Kohn1
  2. K. Steinicke1
  3. G. Arndt2
  4. A.D. Gruber3
  5. B. Guerra4
  6. A. Jansen5
  7. B. Kaser-Hotz1
  8. R. Klopfleisch3
  9. F. Lotz2
  10. E. Luge4
  11. K. Nöckler4
Article first published online: 24 AUG 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0585.x
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Volume 24Issue 6pages 1277–1282,November/December 2010

Background: Leptospirosis in dogs is a multiorgan disease affecting mostly kidneys and liver.
Objectives: The objective was to characterize prevalence, clinical, and radiological features and outcome of dogs with leptospirosis and pulmonary abnormalities.
Animals: Fifty dogs with leptospirosis.
Methods: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leptospirosis at the Small Animal Clinic, Berlin, were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on microscopic agglutination test, blood or urine polymerase chain reaction, and histopathology. Based on clinical and/or radiological signs, patients were grouped into dogs with lung abnormalities (group 1) or without (group 2). Severity of respiratory distress was scored as mild to moderate (grade 1) or severe (grade 2). Thoracic radiographs were scored based on pulmonary changes and location as grade 1 (caudal interstitial pattern), 2 (generalized mild to moderate reticulonodular interstitial pattern), or 3 (generalized severe reticulonodular interstitial pattern with patchy alveolar consolidations). Results of CBC and biochemistry were compared between groups.
Results: Thirty-five dogs had radiological pulmonary changes (grade 1: 5; grade 2: 14; grade 3: 16); 31 of them had pulmonary distress (grade 1: 13, grade 2: 18). Sixty-seven percent of the dogs with dyspnea grade 2 were mainly euthanized because of respiratory distress. Fifteen percent of the dogs with dyspnea grade 1 and 21% without clinical respiratory signs were euthanized because of acute renal failure or sepsis.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In 70% of dogs with leptospirosis pulmonary changes were detected. Lung involvement represented a severe complication causing increased case fatality depending on the severity of respiratory distress.