Saturday, February 16, 2013

Biochemical Analysis of Pleural Effusion Compared to Whole Blood in Dogs and Cats

Biochemical Analysis of Pleural Effusion Compared to Whole Blood in Dogs and Cats
International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium 2010
A.A. Monnig; Y. Buriko; J.E. Prittie
The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
Etiology of pleural effusion (PE) is often unknown at the time of hospital presentation, and useful point of care testing is currently limited. The objectives of this study were to compare the biochemical properties of PE and peripheral blood and to investigate for any biochemical parameters of PE that would aid in rapid diagnosis of the underlying etiology.
Client-owned animals presenting with PE were enrolled. Data collected included signalment, PE and venous blood pH, lactate, glucose and fluid cytology for the purposes of cytologic classification and diagnosis. Results of additional diagnostics and the underlying etiology were recorded. Cases were excluded if an underlying etiology could not be determined. Data have been reported as median (range).
Thirty-nine client-owned animals were evaluated, 26 cats and 13 dogs, of which 31 meet the inclusion criteria. The two most common etiologies for PE were congestive heart failure (CHF) (12/39) and neoplasia (11/39). Hypoproteinemia, lung lobe torsion, idiopathic chylothorax accounted for PE less frequently. Effusion lactate was significantly greater in cats with neoplasia [4.29, (1.85–8.23)] versus CHF [1.65, (0.53–3.80)] (p = 0.007).
Cats with neoplastic PE have higher effusion lactate than cats with CHF as the cause of PE. However, in this small study population, the degree in overlap among groups limits the utility of this biochemical parameter as a discriminating diagnostic tool. The utility of PE biochemical parameters for diagnostic purposes in small animals effusing for reasons other than neoplasia or CHF could not be evaluated due to limited case enrollment.
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The Animal Medical Center
New York, NY, USA