September 2012, Vol. 73, No. 9, Pages 1403-1409
Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in dogs infected with various vector-borne pathogens and in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
Anna E. Karagianni, DVM, MRes; Laia Solano-Gallego, DVM, PhD; Edward B. Breitschwerdt, DVM; Frédéric P. Gaschen, Dr med vet, Dr habil; Michael J. Day, BVMS, PhD, DSc; Michele Trotta, DVM, PhD; Barbara Wieland, Dr med vet, PhD; Karin Allenspach, Dr med vet, PhD
To determine the prevalence of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) in dogs with confirmed or suspected immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) or dogs infected with various vector-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Leishmania infantum.
55 dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA, 140 dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens, and 62 healthy dogs and dogs seronegative for vector-borne pathogens.
Samples were allocated to subgroups on the basis of the health status of the dogs and the degree of seroreactivity against various vector-borne pathogens. Serum samples were tested retrospectively via indirect immunofluorescence assay to determine pANCA status.
26 of 55 (47%) dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA and 67 of 140 (48%) dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens had positive results when tested for pANCA. Serum samples with the highest antibody concentrations against L infantum antigen had the highest proportion (28/43 [65%]) that were positive for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) dogs seronegative for tick-borne pathogens and 8 of 22 (36%) dogs seronegative for L infantum had positive results for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) healthy dogs had serum antibodies against pANCA.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
pANCA were detected in a high percentage of dogs with IMHA and vector-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, pANCA may be a relatively nonspecific marker for dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, although they could represent a biomarker for immune-mediated diseases and infections.