Cerebrovascular disease results from any pathological process of the blood vessels supplying the brain. Stroke, characterised by its abrupt onset, is the third leading cause of death in humans. This rare condition in dogs is increasingly being recognised with the advent of advanced diagnostic imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first choice diagnostic tool for stroke, particularly using diffusion-weighted images and magnetic resonance angiography for ischaemic stroke and gradient echo sequences for haemorrhagic stroke. An underlying cause is not always identified in either humans or dogs. Underlying conditions that may be associated with canine stroke include hypothyroidism, neoplasia, sepsis, hypertension, parasites, vascular malformation and coagulopathy. Treatment is mainly supportive and recovery often occurs within a few weeks. The prognosis is usually good if no underlying disease is found.